The largest consumption of HPA by volume today is in the manufacture of synthetic sapphire, a super-hard material used as a substrate in LED and semi-conductor production. There is currently no known substitute for HPA in the production of artificial sapphire.
Demand for 4N HPA for LED production continues to grow as LEDs are more widely applied.
The use of HPA for sapphire glass production is growing as this becomes the material of choice in display screens for portable electronic devices such as cell phones and smartwatches.
A high growth application of HPA is in the production of separators in Li-ion batteries.